Practice this IELTS Academic Test – Passage 01 on Why we need to protect polar bears reading with answers explanation, location and pdf. This reading paragraph has been taken from our huge collection of IELTS Academic Reading & General Training (GT) Reading practice test PDFs.
Why We Need To Protect Polar Bears Answer Key
Check out Why We Need To Protect Polar Bears reading answers below with explanations and locations given in the text.
|The location is in Paragraph 1, read the lines “Humans with comparative levels of adipose tissue would be considered obese and would be likely to suffer from diabetes and heart disease. Yet the polar bear experiences no such consequences.“
|The explanation for the first answer is that the author stated that polar bears have subcutaneous fat of 11 cm. The same amount of fat in humans is considered obesity and causes several health problems; polar bears do not experience these problems. The information provided in the passage is at odds with the statement in the question. Thus, the response is FALSE.
|The location is in Paragraph 2, read the lines, “They compared the genetic structure of polar bears with that of their closest relatives from a warmer climate, the brown bears.”
|The explanation for the second answer is that it claims that rather than comparing several groupings of polar bears, they compared the polar bears with brown bears. That is a false assertion as a result.
|The explanation for the third answer is that None of the passage’s paragraphs included this assertion.
|The location is in Paragraph 2, read the lines, “Liu and his colleagues found the polar bears had a gene known as APoB, which reduces levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), a form of ‘bad’ cholesterol.“
|The explanation for the fourth answer is that this sentence unequivocally demonstrates that polar bears can lower harmful cholesterol.
|The location is in Paragraph 3, read the lines, “This process results in about six months of fasting, where the female bears have to keep themselves and their cubs alive.“
|The explanation for the fifth answer is that the female bears can last six months without food.
|The location is in Paragraph 3, read the lines, “Despite depleting their own calcium, and calorie reserves, their bones remain strong and dense.“
|The explanation for the sixth answer is that it goes without saying that polar bears’ robust bones withstand calorie and calcium loss.
|The location is in Paragraph 4, read the lines, “If the mechanism of bone remodelling in polar bears can be understood, many bedridden humans, and even astronauts, could potentially benefit.”
|The explanation for the seventh answer is that if the mechanism of bone remodelling is known, humans can take advantage of it.
|The location is in Paragraph 5, read the lines, “Bears seem to be perceived as stupid and in many cases violent.”
|The explanation for the eighth answer is that it is a pretty simple use of synonyms for the word ‘stupid’.
|The location is in Paragraph 5, read the lines, “A male polar bear called GoGo in Tennoji Zoo, Osaka, has been observes making use of a tool to manipulate his environment.”
|The explanation for the ninth answer is that since it says that the bear used a tool to manipulate, the tool is the appropriate response.
|The location is in Paragraph 5, read the lines, “The bear used a tree branch on multiple occasions to dislodge a piece of meat hung out of his reach.”
|The explanation for the tenth answer is that this line illustrates how some meat is knocked down when bears use tree branches.
|The location is in Paragraph 5, read the lines, “A calculated move by a male bear involved running and jumping onto barrels in an attempt to get a photographer standing on a platform four metres high.”
|The explanation for the eleventh answer is that the line pointed out a photographer was there on the platform.
|The location is in Paragraph 6, read the lines, “Ames observed bears putting objects in piles and then knocking them over in what appeared to be a game.”
|The explanation for the twelfth answer is that this line indicates how bears manipulate objects in a manner like to play a game.
|The location is in Paragraph 7, read the lines, “As for emotions, while the evidence is once again anecdotal, many bears have been seen to hit out at ice and snow, seemingly out of frustration, when they have just missed out on a kill.”
|The explanation for the thirteenth answer is that bears become frustrated when they fail to kill.
Polar bears are being increasingly threatened by the effects of climate change, but their disappearance could have far-reaching consequences. They are uniquely adapted to the extreme conditions of the Arctic Circle, where temperatures can reach -40°C. One reason for this is that they have up to 11 centimetres of fat underneath their skin. Humans with comparative levels of adipose tissue would be considered obese and would be likely to suffer from diabetes and heart disease. Yet the polar bear experiences no such consequences.
A 2014 study by Shi Ping Liu and colleagues sheds light on this mystery. They compared the genetic structure of polar bears with that of their closest relatives from a warmer climate, the brown bears. This allowed them to determine the genes that have allowed polar bears to survive in one of the toughest environments on Earth. Liu and his colleagues found the polar bears had a gene known as APoB, which reduces levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) – a form of ‘bad’ cholesterol. In humans, mutations of this gene are associated with increased risk of heart disease. Polar bears may therefore be an important study model to understand heart disease in humans.
The genome of the polar bear may also provide the solution for another condition, one that particularly affects our older generation: osteoporosis. This is a disease where bones show reduced density, usually caused by insufficient exercise, reduced calcium intake or food starvation. Bone tissue is constantly being remodelled, meaning that bone is added or removed, depending on nutrient availability and the stress that the bone is under. Female polar bears, however, undergo extreme conditions during every pregnancy. Once autumn comes around, these females will dig maternity dens in the snow and will remain there throughout the winter, both before and after the birth of their cubs. This process results in about six months of fasting, where the female bears have to keep themselves and their cubs alive, depleting their own calcium and calorie reserves. Despite this, their bones remain strong and dense.
Physiologists Alanda Lennox and Allen Goodship found an explanation for this paradox in 2008. They discovered that pregnant bears were able to increase the density of their bones before they started to build their dens. In addition, six months later, when they finally emerged from the den with their cubs, there was no evidence of significant loss of bone density. Hibernating brown bears do not have this capacity and must therefore resort to major bone reformation in the following spring. If the mechanism of bone remodelling in polar bears can be understood, many bedridden humans, and even astronauts, could potentially benefit.
The medical benefits of the polar bear for humanity certainly have their importance in our conservation efforts, but these should not be the only factors taken into consideration. We tend to want to protect animals we think are intelligent and possess emotions, such as elephants and primates. Bears, on the other hand, seem to be perceived as stupid and in many cases violent. And yet anecdotal evidence from the field challenges those assumptions, suggesting for example that polar bears have good problem-solving abilities. A male bear called GoGo in Tennoji Zoo, Osaka, has even been observed making use of a tool to manipulate his environment. The bear used a tree branch on multiple occasions to dislodge a piece of meat hung out of his reach. Problem-solving ability has also been witnessed in wild polar bears, although not as obviously as with GoGo. A calculated move by a male bear involved running and jumping onto barrels in an attempt to get to a photographer standing on a platform four metres high.
In other studies, such as one by Alison Ames in 2008, polar bears showed deliberate and focused manipulation. For example, Ames observed bears putting objects in piles and then knocking them over in what appeared to be a game. The study demonstrates that bears are capable of agile and thought-out behaviours. These examples suggest bears have greater creativity and problem-solving abilities than previously thought.
As for emotions, while the evidence is once again anecdotal, many bears have been seen to hit out at ice and snow – seemingly out of frustration – when they have just missed out on a kill. Moreover, polar bears can form unusual relationships with other species, including playing with the dogs used to pull sleds in the Arctic. Remarkably, one hand-raised polar bear called Agee has formed a close relationship with her owner Mark Dumas to the point where they even swim together. This is even more astonishing since polar bears are known to actively hunt humans in the wild.
If climate change were to lead to their extinction, this would mean not only the loss of potential breakthroughs in human medicine, but more importantly, the disappearance of an intelligent, majestic animal.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
- Polar bears suffer from various health problems due to the build-up of fat under their skin.
- The study done by Liu and his colleagues compared different groups of polar bears.
- Liu and colleagues were the first researchers to compare polar bears and brown bears genetically.
- Polar bears are able to control their levels of ‘bad’ cholesterol by genetic means.
- Female polar bears are able to survive for about six months without food.
- It was found that the bones of female polar bears were very weak when they came out of their dens in spring.
- The polar bear’s mechanism for increasing bone density could also be used by people one day.
Complete the table below.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
|Reasons why polar bears should be protected
People think of bears as unintelligent and 8 ………………. .However, this may not be correct. For example:
● In Tennoji Zoo, a bear has been seen using a branch as a 9 ………………. . This allowed him to knock down some 10 ………………. .
● A wild polar bear worked out a method of reaching a platform where a 11 ………………. was located.
● Polar bears have displayed behaviour such as conscious manipulation of objects and activity similar to a 12 ………………. .
Bears may also display emotions. For example:
● They may make movements suggesting 13 ………………. if disappointed when hunting.
● They may form relationships with other species.
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