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THE MOTOR CAR: Reading Answers

Academic Test 3 – Passage 02: The Motor Car reading answers with location, explanation and pdf summary.

The Motor Car

A

There are now over 700 million motor vehicles in the world – and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year. The average distance driven by car users is growing too – from 8 km a day per person in western Europe in 1965 to 25 km a day in 1995. This dependence on motor vehicles has given rise to major problems, including environmental pollution, depletion of oil resources, traffic congestion and safety.

While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis, which emit excessive levels of smoke and fumes. This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe. Even Moscow has joined the list of capitals afflicted by congestion and traffic fumes. In Mexico City, vehicle pollution is a major health hazard.

C

Until a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20 km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse. Heavy freight could only be carried by water or rail. The invention of the motor vehicle brought personal mobility to the masses and made rapid freight delivery possible over a much wider area. Today about 90 per cent of inland freight in the United Kingdom is carried by road. Clearly the world cannot revert to the horse-drawn wagon. Can it avoid being locked into congested and polluting ways of transporting people and goods?

D

In Europe most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport. Adaptation to the motor car has involved adding ring roads, one-way systems and parking lots. In the United States, more land is assigned to car use than to housing. Urban sprawl means that life without a car is next to impossible. Mass use of motor vehicles has also killed or injured millions of people. Other social effects have been blamed on the car such as alienation and aggressive human behaviour.

E

A 1993 study by the European Federation for Transport and Environment found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel in terms of the external social costs it entails such as congestion, accidents, pollution, loss of cropland and natural habitats, depletion of oil resources, and so on. Yet cars easily surpass trains or buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal transport. It is unrealistic to expect people to give up private cars in favour of mass transit.

F

Technical solutions can reduce the pollution problem and increase the fuel efficiency of engines. But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred by customers and how they are driven. Many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively. Besides, global car use is increasing at a faster rate than the improvement in emissions and fuel efficiency which technology is now making possible.

G

One solution that has been put forward is the long-term solution of designing cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not necessary – all essential services being located within walking distance or easily accessible by public transport. Not only would this save energy and cut carbon dioxide emissions, it would also enhance the quality of community life, putting the emphasis on people instead of cars. Good local government is already bringing this about in some places. But few democratic communities are blessed with the vision – and the capital – to make such profound changes in modern lifestyles.

H

A more likely scenario seems to be a combination of mass transit systems for travel into and around cities, with small ‘low emission’ cars for urban use and larger hybrid or lean burn cars for use elsewhere. Electronically tolled highways might be used to ensure that drivers pay charges geared to actual road use. Better integration of transport systems is also highly desirable – and made more feasible by modern computers. But these are solutions for countries which can afford them. In most developing countries, old cars and old technologies continue to predominate.

Questions 14-19

Reading Passage 2 has eight paragraphs (A-H). Which paragraphs concentrate on the following information? Write the appropriate letters (A-H) in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

NB You need only write ONE letter for each answer.

14. a comparison of past and present transportation methods

15. how driving habits contribute to road problems

16. the relative merits of cars and public transport

17. the writer’s own prediction of future solutions

18. the increasing use of motor vehicles

19. the impact of the car on city development

Questions 20-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet write:

YES – if the statement agrees with the information

NO – if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN – if there is no information on this in the passage

20. Vehicle pollution is worse in European cities than anywhere else.

21. Transport by horse would be a useful alternative to motor vehicles.

22. Nowadays freight is not carried by water in the United Kingdom.

23. Most European cities were not designed for motor vehicles.

24. Technology alone cannot solve the problem of vehicle pollution.

25. People’s choice of car and attitude to driving is a factor in the pollution problem.

26. Redesigning cities would be a short-term solution.

Answers with Explanation

Check out The Motor Car reading answers below with location and explanation given in the text:

14. C
15. F
16. E
17. H
18. A
19. D
20. NOT GIVEN
21. NO
22. NOT GIVEN
23. YES
24. YES
25. YES
26. NO

Wondering how the answers are chosen?? Then, read The Motor Car reading answers explained below:

IDENTIFYING INFORMATION

QuestionAnswer Explanation
14. a comparison of past and present transportation methodsUnderline keywords: comparison, past, present, transportation methods

In the paragraph C, the author describes in the start, “Until a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20 km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse. Heavy freight could only be carried by water or rail____.”

In this text, Until a hundred years ago means that ➙ past transportation methods

Now, look at the lines 9-11, “____ Today about 90 per cent of inland freight in the United Kingdom is carried by road___.”

In this text, Today means that ➙ present transportation methods

Hence, the answer is going to be: C
15. how driving habits contribute to road problemsUnderline keywords: driving habits, contribute, road problems  

Look at the paragraph F, in lines 7-9, “ ______Many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively_______.”

In this text, waste fuel means that ➙ road problems
&
driving aggressively means that ➙ driving habits,

Hence, the answer is going to be: F
16. the relative merits of cars and public transportUnderline keywords: relative merits, cars, public transport  

In the paragraph E, the author explains, “A 1993 study by the European Federation for Transport and Environment found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel in terms of the external social costs it entails such as congestion, accidents, pollution, loss of cropland and natural habitats, depletion of oil resources, and so on. Yet cars easily surpass trains or buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal transport______.”

In this text, car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel means that ➙ merit of public transport via rail
&
cars easily surpass trains or buses means that ➙ merit of cars,

Hence, the answer is going to be: E
17. the writer’s own prediction of future solutionsUnderline keywords: writer’s own prediction, future solutions  

Look at the Paragraph H, “A more likely scenario seems to be a combination of mass transit systems for travel into and around cities, with small ‘low emission’ cars for urban use and larger hybrid or lean burn cars for use elsewhere. Electronically tolled highways might be used to ensure that drivers pay charges geared to actual road use. Better integration of transport systems is also highly desirable ____.”

In this text, A more likely scenario seems to be means that ➙ writer’s prediction of future solutions
&
might be used and highly desirable means that ➙ future solutions

Hence, the answer is going to be: H
18. the increasing use of motor vehiclesUnderline keywords: increasing use, motor vehicles

Carefully observe the beginning of paragraph A, which says, “There are now over 700 million motor vehicles in the world – and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year______.”

In this text, number is rising by more than 40 million each year means that ➙ increasing use of motor vehicles

Hence, the answer is going to be: A
19. the impact of the car on city developmentUnderline keywords: impact of the car, city development  

Look at the paragraph D, in the beginning, “In Europe most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport. Adaptation to the motor car has involved adding ring roads, one-way systems and parking lots______.”

In this text, Adaptation to the motor car means that ➙ impact of the car
&
adding ring roads, one-way systems and parking lots means that ➙ city development

Hence, the answer is going to be: D

YES/NO/NOT GIVEN

QuestionAnswer Explanation
20. Vehicle pollution is worse in European cities than anywhere else.Underline keywords: vehicle pollution, worse, European cities, than anywhere else     

When we look at Paragraph B, we can easily find out about ‘vehicle pollution’. Nonetheless, there is Nothing mentioned on whether vehicle pollution is better or worse in European cities than anywhere else.

Hence, the answer is going to be: NOT GIVEN
21. Transport by horse would be a useful alternative to motor vehicles.Underline keywords: transport by horse, useful alternative, motor vehicles

In the Paragraph C, the author points out, “Until a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20 km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse_____.”

In this text, the author describes that people in the past could conveniently travel 20 kilometres by horse.

Now read the lines 11-13, “____Clearly the world cannot revert to the horse-drawn wagon____”

In this text, these lines strikes the idea that transport by horse cannot be a useful alternative to motor vehicles.

Hence, the answer is going to be: NO
22. Nowadays freight is not carried by water in the United Kingdom.Underline keywords: Nowadays, freight, not carried by water, United Kingdom

Look at paragraph C, there is healthy discussion about the ‘freight use in the United Kingdom’.

But, there is Nothing mentioned regarding the current use of ‘water freight’ in the country.

Hence, the answer is going to be: NOT GIVEN  
23. Most European cities were not designed for motor vehicles.Underline keywords: Most European cities, not designed, motor vehicles  

Look at the beginning of paragraph D, “In Europe most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport_____.”

In this text, In Europe most cities means that ➙ Most European cities
&
still designed for the old modes of transport means that ➙ not designed for motor vehicles

Hence, the answer is going to be: YES
24. Technology alone cannot solve the problem of vehicle pollution.Underline keywords: technology alone, cannot solve, vehicle pollution

Look at the paragraph F, in the first half, the author describes, “Technical solutions can reduce the pollution problem and increase the fuel efficiency of engines. But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred by customers and how they are driven_____.”

In this text, these lines points to the idea that technology can remedy the vehicle pollution but if driving habits do not change, the problem cannot be solved.

Hence, the answer is going to be: YES
25. People’s choice of car and attitude to driving is a factor in the pollution problem.Underline keywords: people’s choice of car, attitudes to driving, factor, pollution problem
   
Now read paragraph F, “ ____ But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred by customers and how they are driven. Many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively___.”

In this text, Many people buy larger cars than they need means that ➙ people’s choice of car
&
driving aggressively means that ➙ attitude to driving
&
waste fuel means that ➙ pollution problem

Hence, the answer is going to be: YES
26. Redesigning cities would be a short-term solution.Underline keywords: redesigning cities, would be, short-term solution  

In the paragraph G, the writer explains in the start, “One solution that has been put forward is the long-term solution of designing cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not necessary_____.”

In this text, designing cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not necessary means that ➙ redesigning cities

Hence, the answer is going to be: NO

PDF

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